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Prostate Cancer, Early Stage
Carcinoma of the prostate is the most commonly diagnosed male malignancy in the US. In 1998, there were 184,000 new cases diagnosed. In fact, prostate cancer is a common incidental finding at autopsy (70% of men aged 80). Because it grows so slowly, it often produces no symptoms and men often die of other causes before the cancer becomes an issue.
The cause of prostate cancer remains unclear. It is thought to be a combination of environmental, genetic, and lifestyle factors. Men are at the highest risk between ages 40 and 60. Men with a first-degree relative who had the disease and African American men are also at higher risk.
The decision to aggressively evaluate and treat a prostate cancer depends on several factors, including age, life expectancy, general health status, stage of the tumor, the desire to maintain erectile function, the individual wishes of the man regarding the desire for cure versus palliation.
Aggressive treatment usually includes surgery, and/or radiation, and/or hormonal therapy. Less aggressive therapy may consist of hormone therapy alone, either at the time of diagnosis or later, when symptoms appear.
The decision to monitor symptoms and progression of the disease is called "watchful waiting". This is a reasonable option in elderly men with low-grade tumors and men with other medical illnesses that reduce life expectancy to less than 10 years.
Get the Facts... With your MediFocus Guide
The Medifocus Guide on Prostate Cancer, Early Stage provides answers to the following important questions and medical issues:
- What are the most common symptoms of prostate cancer?
- Are there any recognized risk factors for developing prostate cancer?
- What kinds of medical tests are used to establish the diagnosis of prostate cancer?
- What is the current standard of care for the treatment of prostate cancer?
- What treatment options are available for the management of prostate cancer?
- Are there any promising new developments or potential breakthroughs in treatment?
- Who are the most notable medical authorities who specialize in prostate cancer?
- Where are the leading hospitals and centers of research for prostate cancer?
- What are the most important questions to ask my doctor about prostate cancer?
What Your Doctor Reads:
This MediFocus Guide contains an extensive listing of citations and abstracts of recent journal articles that have been published about this condition in trustworthy medical journals. This is the same type of information that is available to physicians and other health care professionals. A partial selection of journal articles that are abstracted in this MediFocus Guide includes:
- Early prostate cancer.
Current Problems in Cancer. 2000
- Early prostate cancer diagnosis and therapy.
Advances in Internal Medicine. 2000
- Recent advances in early prostatic cancer.
Anticancer Research. 1999
- Rising PSAs after primary therapy: active or passive intervention.
Seminars in Urologic Oncology. 1999
- Treatment options for early prostate cancer.
- Early-stage prostate cancer: controversies, confusion, and difficult choices.
Cancer Journal From Scientific American. 1998
- Diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer.
American Family Physician. 1998
- Stage T1c prostate cancer: defining the appropriate staging evaluation and the role for pelvic lymphadenectomy.
World Journal of Urology. 1997
- Diagnosis, management and screening of early localised prostate cancer.
Health Technology Assessment (South Hampton, NY). 1997
- Predicting pelvic lymph node involvement in patients with localized prostate cancer.
European Urology. 1997
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